The five different parts of the lathe machine are the headstock; tailstock; cutting tools, like the gouge, skew chisel, round chisel, narrower spear and finishing tools; carriage and spindle.
A lathe machine is a tool used to shape and smooth wood. Lathe machinists and craftsmen use this type of machine for customizing and making wood products. Lathes are useful for creating decorative wood designs; carving wood surfaces; creating furniture components like table and chair legs; and making cue sticks, baseball bats and other wooden items that are cylindrical in shape. There are also lathes that are made for working on other materials like glass and metals. It is useful to know the different parts of the lathe machine in order to be able to operate it properly and to know when it needs spindle repair and other maintenance works.
The lathe machine’s headstock is responsible for anchoring and holding in place the upper end of the spindle. It also houses the motor that rotates the wood. The back of the headstock has a number of pulleys and gears which can be adjusted to alter the speed of the spindle’s rotation. A high-tension spring or chuck keeps the wood piece steady and in place so that it does not fall or move when the spindle starts rotating.
The lathe machine has a centering mechanism attached to the wood piece, and this is held in place by the tailstock. The center can rotate with the wood or remain fixed in place. The rotating mechanism or live center contains the bearings that enable it to move.
Cutting tools like the gouge, skew chisel, round chisel, narrower spear and finishing tools
You can attach several types of cutting tools on the lathe machine depending on the type of project being undertaken. The gouge tool is the most common tool used for clearing out excess wood. The skew chisel is used for refining the carving details. Finer details are made using round chisels and narrower spears. Finishing tools are best for buffing the wood because their rounded-off ends prevent them from slicing any more material than needed.
The lathe’s cutting tool is held in place by the carriage which allows the craftsman to work. The carriage is made up of 5 different components and include the compound rest, cross-slide, apron, tool rest and the saddle. These components function in conjunction to allow the cutting tool to be used to slide into place.
Lathe spindles have 3 configurations. These main configurations are the threaded, cam-lock and tapered. The threaded model is the oldest configuration and is not tapered which makes the chuck rather difficult to attach. Cam-lock spindles contain cam studs on one end; it slides into a ring of similar holes. The studs lock in place when a chuck key is turned. The third configuration, the tapered spindle, narrows at the tip and has a threaded collar with a built-in chuck key.
The invention of the lathe machine has made the creation of wood products easier, faster and less physically demanding for the craftsman. Lathe machines also allow craftsmen to work more accurately.